In the end,you'll be happy & if you are not happy it's not the END. Courtesy By: Ajeet Sharma
MUNGER-AT A GLANCE
 

The territory included within the district of Munger (famously Monghyr) formed pent of the Madhya-desa as “munger fortMidland” of the first Aryan settlers. It has been identified with Mod-Giri a
place mentioned in the Mahabharata, which was the capital of a kingdom in Eastern India near Vanga and Tamralipta. In the Digvijaya Parva of Mahabharata, we find the mention of Moda-Giri, Which seems similar to Moda-Giri. Digvijaya Parva suggests that it was a monarchical state during early times. A passage in the Sabha-Parva describes Bhima’s conquest in Eastern India and says that after defeating Karna, king of Anga, he fought battle at Modagiri and killed its chief. It was also known as Maudal after Maudgalya, a disciple of Buddha, who converted a rich merchant of this place into Buddhism. Buchanan says that it was the hermitage of Mudgala Muni and this tradition of Mudgal Risi still persists. Munger is called “Modagiri” in the Monghyr copperplate of Devapala. The derivation of the name Munger (Monghyr) has found the subject of much speculation. Tradition arcribes the foundation of the town to Chandragupta, after whom it was called Guptagars a name which has been found inscribed on a rock at Kastaharni Ghat at the north-western corner of the present fort. It is insisted that Mudgalrisi lived there. Tradition ascribes the composition of various suktar   of the 10th Mavdala of the Rigveda to Rishi Mudgal and his clan. However, General Cunnigham had strong suspicicion when he connects this original name with Mons as Mundas, who occupied this part before the advent of the Aryans. Again Mr. C.E.A. oldham, ICS, a farmer collector suggests the possibility of Munigiha,  ie , the abode of the Muni, without any specification which later corrupted to Mungir and later became Munger.

At the dawn of history, the present site of the town was apparently comprised within the Kingdom of Anga, with the capital Champa near Bhagalpur. According to Pargiter, Anga comprises the modern districts of Bhagalpur and Munger commissionary. The Anga dominion at one time included Magadha and the Shanti-Parva refers to an Anga king who sacrificed at Mount Vishnupada. In the epic period Modagiri finds mention as a separate state. The success of the Anga did not last long and about the middle of the sixth century B.C. Bimlisara of Magadha is said to have killed Brahmadatta, the last independent ruler of ancient Anga. Hence the Anga became an integral part of the growing empire of Magadh. As epigraphic evidence of the Gupta period suggests that Munger was under the Guptas. To the reign of Buddhagupta (447-495 A.D) belongs a copper plate of A.D. 488-9 originally found at Mandapura in the district.

HIUEN TSIANG’S ACCOUNT: However the first historical account of the district appears in the Travels of HIUEN TSIANG,who visited this area towards the close of the first half of the seventh century A.D. Hiuen Tsiang observed “The country is regularly cultivated and rich in produce flowers and fruit being abundant, the climate is agreeable and manners of the people simple and honest. There are 10 Hiuen TsiangBuddhist monartries with about 4,000 priests and few Brahminical temples occupied by various sectaries”. The pilgrim’s “I-lan-ha-po-fa-to”country is identified as this area. He had to pass through thick forest and strange mountains into the country of Hiranayaparvat. The capital Hiranayaparvat, lay, on the southern bank of Ganga, and closed to it stood mount Hiranya, which “belched masses of smoke and vapour that obscured the light of the sun and the moon”. The position of this hill is determined from its proximity to the Ganga, to be Munger and though no smoke now comes from any peak, the numerous hot springs in the hills point to famous volcanic action. These hot spring are also mentioned in Hiuen Tsiang’s Account. General Cunningham identified the hot springs being those of Bhimbandh and its offshoots. Other authorities refer it as Uren in present Lakhisarai District.

             Unfortunately, there is a historical gap of almost two centuries when we find its fresh mention in the Munger copper plate of Devapala discovered at Munger about 1780. We learn from this copper plate about Dharampala (c.770-810) who preceded far beyond Kanauj in his military campaigns. It refers to a campaign of Dharampala along the foot of the Himalayas. Tripartite struggle between the Palas, Rashhtrakutas and Gurjar-Pratihars for subermacy over Kanauj was a dominant factor in the history of northern India. We find mention of Pala king Gopal, his son Dharampala & Devapala. Munger prominence is also corroborated by the Nawlagarth inscriptions of Begusarai. The Bhagalpur plate of Narayan pala, executed at Munger, shows their policy of religious tolerance and there patronage to the worshipers of Shiva & Sakti cults.

Till the advent of the Turkish rule in India. Munger was under sway of the Karnataka dynasty of Mithila. However Bakhiyar Khilji took possession of Territory any of Munger in AD1225. Thus Munger in possession of the Khilji ruler Gyasuddin. After a tussle  and aftermath a peace treaty Munger came under the control of Sultan of Bengal between 1301-1322, which is corroborated by the Lakhisarai Inscription. Munger came under the possession of Muhammad Bin Tugular who annexed  Munger to Delhi for some time. In 1342 the whole of north India witnessed the turmoil and Late Spasmodic Illyas Shah of Bangal taking advantage of the opportunities established his sway over Bihar. An interesting description of the Bengal sultan still exists in Lakhisarai. Inscription bearing a date corresponding to 1297 which mentions Rakmuddin Kalawao (c1296-1302) and a Governor round Ferai Hitagim. During thus conflict between the Tugulaqs of Delhi and Bangal Sultan some portions of then Munger came under the possession of the Sharqils of Jaunpur.
A_View_of_the_Fort_of_Mongheer,_upon_the_banks_of_the_River_Gangess
               Some inscriptions found in Munger speaks of the conflict between the Jampur rules and the Bangal Sultan which resulted in farmer’s defeat and finally resulted in peace. Here we came across the name of prince Danyal who held the post of Governor of Bihar. It was prince Danyal who had repaired the fortification of Munger and built in 1497 the voult over the shrine of Shah Nafah. This is also known by the insemination but up by Danyal on the eastern wall of the Dargah just within the southern gate of the fort.
            
Nasrat Shah succeeded Hussain Shah in Bengal in 1590. His brother-in-law Makhdun Alam took possession of Munger Fort and entrusted its responsibility to one of his  general named Kutub Khan who made Munger the head quarters of Bihar army of the rulers of Gaur. Bahar in his memoir mention that when he invaded  Bihar, Munger was under the change of a prince. After the Battle of ghagra, Babar sent envoys to Nusarat Shah later Kutub Khan was defeated and killed by Shur Shah. In 1534 again a powerful army in command of Ibrahim Khan moved out to Munger, The battles took place in the narrow plains of Surajgarha in which Ibrahim Khan was routed and slain and Sher Shah firmly placed himself to Kingshlip. Thus during the Humayun-Sher Shah conflict Munger pardoner strategic gamed. During the subsequent war between Sher Shah and Humayun Munger was the seat of battle between, the Afghan and the Empires in which Sher Shah captured Dilawar Khan son of Daulat Khan Lodi. Mughal rule was substituted for Afghan rule. During Akbar’s period when the great Bengal military revolts started. Munger was for some time the headquarters of Akbar’s officers in their expeditions against the rebels. It was in this year that Raja Todarmal took possession of Munger and tried to deal with three refractory powerful semi-independent Zamindars of Akbar’s time viz. Raja Gajapati of Hajipur, Raja Puran Mal of Ghidhaur and Raja Sangram Singh of Kharagpur. The last two belonged to the district of Munger. Gajapati was totally ruined. After the final occupation of Bihar, Raja Man Singh was appointed as the Governor and on the basis of Akbarnama. It can be said that Raja Man Singh succeeded well in his administration. Kharagpur at that time was a great principality extending from the south of Munger to the south of Bhagalpur and Santhal Paragans. Sangram Singh remained loyal to the Mughal rule till Akbar’s death in 1605. But the accession of Jahangir and the rebellion of Prince Khusru led him to make a final attempt to recover his independence. He collected his forces, which, according to Jhangir’s memoirs, consisted of about four thousand horses and a large army of foot soldiers. Till the advent of the Turkish rule in India. Munger was under sway of the Karnataka dynasty of Mithila. However Bakhiyar Khilji took possession of Territory any of Munger in AD1225. Thus Munger in possession of the Khilji ruler Gyasuddin. After a tussle  and aftermath a peace treaty Munger came under the control of Sultan of Bengal between 1301-1322, which is corroborated by the Lakhisarai Inscription. Munger came under the possession of Muhammad Bin Tugular who annexed  Munger to Delhi for some time. In 1342 the whole of north India witnessed the turmoil and Late Spasmodic Illyas Shah of Bangal taking advantage of the opportunities established his sway over Bihar. An interesting description of the Bengal sultan still exists in Lakhisarai. Inscription bearing a date corresponding to 1297 which mentions Rakmuddin Kalawao (c1296-1302) and a Governor round Ferai Hitagim. During thus conflict between the Tugulaqs of Delhi and Bangal Sultan some portions of then Munger came under the possession of the Sharqils of Jaunpur.
  Kasht Harni River           
Some inscriptions found in Munger speaks of the conflict between the Jampur rules and the Bangal Sultan which resulted in farmer’s defeat and finally resulted in peace. Here we came across the name of prince Danyal who held the post of Governor of Bihar. It was prince Danyal who had repaired the fortification of Munger and built in 1497 the voult over the shrine of Shah Nafah. This is also known by the insemination but up by Danyal on the eastern wall of the Dargah just within the southern gate of the fort.

Nasrat Shah succeeded Hussain Shah in Bengal in 1590. His brother-in-law Makhdun Alam took possession of Munger Fort and entrusted its responsibility to one of his  general named Kutub Khan who made Munger the head quarters of Bihar army of the rulers of Gaur. Bahar in his memoir mention that when he invaded  Bihar, Munger was under the change of a prince. After the Battle of ghagra, Babar sent envoys to Nusarat Shah later Kutub Khan was defeated and killed by Shur Shah. In 1534 again a powerful army in command of Ibrahim Khan moved out to Munger, The battles took place in the narrow plains of Surajgarha in which Ibrahim Khan was routed and slain and Sher Shah firmly placed himself to Kingshlip. Thus during the Humayun-Sher Shah conflict Munger pardoner strategic gamed. During the subsequent war between Sher Shah and Humayun Munger was the seat of battle between, the Afghan and the Empires in which Sher Shah captured Dilawar Khan son of Daulat Khan Lodi. Mughal rule was substituted for Afghan rule. During Akbar’s period when the great Bengal military revolts started. Munger was for some time the headquarters of Akbar’s officers in their expeditions against the rebels. It was in this year that Raja Todarmal took possession of Munger and tried to deal with three refractory powerful semi-independent Zamindars of Akbar’s time viz. Raja Gajapati of Hajipur, Raja Puran Mal of Ghidhaur and Raja Sangram Singh of Kharagpur. The last two belonged to the district of Munger. Gajapati was totally ruined. After the final occupation of Bihar, Raja Man Singh was appointed as the Governor and on the basis of Akbarnama. It can be said that Raja Man Singh succeeded well in his administration. Kharagpur at that time was a great principality extending from the south of Munger to the south of Bhagalpur and Santhal Paragans. Sangram Singh remained loyal to the Mughal rule till Akbar’s death in 1605. But the accession of Jahangir and the rebellion of Prince Khusru led him to make a final attempt to recover his independence. He collected his forces, which, according to Jhangir’s memoirs, consisted of about four thousand horses and a large army of foot soldiers.
Nafa Sahab Ka Mazar
The Mughal army under Jahangir’s Kuli Khan Lala Beg, Governor of Bihar, valiantly opposed him and a gun shot in 1606 killed Sangram Singh. Sangram Singh’s son succeeded in gaining favour of Jahangir but had to wait till 1615 when, on his conversion to Islam, he was allowed to return to Bihar. He known in history as Rozafzun (ie. Daily growing in power). He remained faithful to the Emperor and in 1628 when Jahangir died he was a commander of 1500-foot soldiers and 700 horses. When Shahjahan became the Emperor, Rozafzun entered into active Mughal services and accompanied Mahabat Khan in his Kabul expedition. He was a brave soldier and had to his credit his participation in the Siege of Parendah and was promoted to the higher ranks and became the commander of 2000-foot soldiers and 1000 horses.He died in 1635 and was succeeded by his son Raja Bihruz who was also a great fighter and held the rank of 700-foot soldier and 700 horses, under Shahjahan. He extended his territory, got many grants specially the Chakla Midnapur, in which he built a town and named it Kharagpur. A ruined palace built by him is there; adjoining it is a three-domed mosque. There is still a marble slab, which gives the date of building in 1656 A.D. But this brave Kharagpur ruler died in 1656. During the civil (1657-58) amongst the sons of Shahjahan, Shah Shuja, the second son of the Emperor was governor of Bengal. On hearing of the serious illness of his father in 1657 he raised the standard of revolts and claimed the throne. Though his capital was at Rajmahal, Munger the centre from which he direct his preparations and here he returned in 1658 after his defeat. In June 1658, Auranzeb made an attempt to conciliate Shuja by granting him the province of Bihar in addition to Bengal. Munger came into great prominence during this period of the civil war. Prof. Quanungo writes that after the March of Imperial Army Shuja wrote to Dara asking for the grant of Munger, which formed the part of Dara’s province of Bihar. Dara was also prepared to give away the Fort of Munger on the condition that the present fortress was dismantled and Shuja’s son did not reside there. We also get a reference of Murad’s letter in which the designs of Dara to deprive Shuja of Munger has been hinted at. Shuja took shelter at Munger to face the Imperialists. In course of this conflict Dara was compelled to send urgent letters to his son to make peace with his uncle. As a result of this treaty of 1685 Munger was added to Shuja’s viceroyalty but he was not allowed to reside there. In 1659 Daud Khan took charge of the province of Bihar. Mir. Jumla and Prince Muhammad pursued Shuja up to Munger. Shuja was forced by the treachery of Raja Bihruz Khan of Kharagpur and Khaza Kamal of Birbhum to abandon Munger in 1659. It was in this connection that Raja Bihruz was made In charge of the whole area of Munger. We also find a mention of a Aevastative famine during the reign of the Governor, Ibrahim Khan which continued from 1670-72. The Dutch traveller, De Graafe, who travelled from Munger to Patna in November 1670 gives a graphic picture of the horrible sccnes. Marshall also mentions very interesting details about Munger. He inspected Shah Suja place built on the west side of the Fort. He describes it, “as a very large house where the king (Suja) lived, walled next to the river, for about one and half Kos with bricks and stones, with a wall fifteen yards high”. He entered the first gate but was stopped at the other within which he saw two elephants carved in stone and very large and handsomely”. The inside palace was so strictly guarded that two Dutch men De Graafe and Oasterhoff were imprisoned for their antiquarian interest as they were taken as spies. They were released after seven weeks of imprisonment in November , 1670 by paying a fine of one thousand rupees to the Nawab of Patna. Marshall found a great garden and, at the south end, he saw several thatched and many tombs and mosques.

He further writes “the town stands upon an ascent, the river bank by it being 8 or 10 yards high, the brick wall by the river side at the south end of Munger was about 5 yards high and 20 yards long with a little tower at each end and each wall is a fortification to place the gun on it. Towards the close of  the 18th Century we find that Munger was merely station of “Power Magazine” established there….” For most vivid lightning often about Munger attracted by the iron ore which abounds in the neighboring hills and if it fell upon the magazine, the while Fort could certainly be destroyed by the explosion”. We find mention in the travel account of R.Heber in his book “Narrative of Journey Through the Upper Province of India (1827)” that Munger was noted for its good climate and Warren Hastings also speaks of the delightful change of atmosphere from that of Bengal. Heber further wrote “Munger presents an imposing appeardance…. The Fort is now dismantled. Its gates, its battlements etc. are all of Asiatic architecture and very much similar to the Khitairagorod of Moscow.” Miss Emily Eden was also much struck by the inland tables and boxes and expressed surprise on such curious workmanship (Miss Eden-Up the Country quoted in Munger Gazetteer 1960). The remark of Miss Eden is also attested in the writing of Fanny Parkes who wrote “Among the articles manufactured here the black vases for flowers turned into while wood and lacquered whilst in the Lathe with scaling wax are pretty”. Joseph Hooker also speaks highly of Munger, “By far the prettiest town, Munger was celebrated for its iton manufacture, especially of muskets, in which respect it is the Burmingham of Bengal”.

munger_with_dark_clouds When we come down to the early Mughal period we get a few references to the district in the famous book “Ain-I-Akbari” prepared by Abul Fazl. According to it Sarkar Munger consisted of 31 mahals or Parganas, paying a revenue of 10,96,25 981 dams (40 dams equal to One Akbar Shahi rupee). It is also mentioned that Sarkar Munger furnished 2150 horses and 50,000 foot soldiers. Raja Man Singh who is said to have reconqucred Bengal and Orissa had for some time Munger as his residenoc.During the reign of Aurangzed we find mention of Munger inconnection with the death and burial at Munger of the poet Mulla Mohammad Saiyed, who wrote under the nom-de-plume of Ashraf. The poet Ashraf stood in high favour with prince Azim-Us-Shah, Aurangzeb’s  grand son, who happened to be the Governor of Bihar. The poet Ashraf had also been for a long time the teacher of Zebunissa Begum, Aurangzeb’s daughter who was herself a poetcss of rupute. It 1704 while on his way from Bengal to Mecca, the poet died at Munger where his tomb is still pointed out. Nicholas Graafe, a Dutch physician who visited in the beginning of the century was struck with admiration at the sight of its white wall, towers and minarets. But by 1745 when Mustafa Khan, a rebellious General of Alivardi Khan advanced against it in his march northwards the fort was a ruinous fortification which the Governor and his little garrison tried to put up some Defence but failed miserably.

The besieger got upon the wall and scized the fort though the leader was killed by a stone that fell upon him. Mustafa Khan, however, following the custom of those days, had music played to celebrate his success, he also took some guns and ammunition from the fort and after a halt for a few days marched off towards Patna. During the period of the disintegration of Mughal Empire Munger had to witness new changes. Bihar came to be joined to the Suba of Bengal, which had practically become independent of Delhi. Alivardi, who was the Fauzdar of Rajmahal had now become the District Governor of Munger. Munger was politically and strategically so important that it did not escape even the Maratha expendition. The second Maratha invasion under Raghujee Bhonsla occurred in 1743.

Balaji Maratha entered into Bihar and advancing through Tekari, Gaya, Manpur, Bihar and Munger. It is also mentioned that during the 4th Maratha  invasion in 1744 Raghuji passed through the hills of Kharagpur. When  British force was pursuing Jean Law, the French adventurer and partisan of siraj-ud-duala, who was flying northwards after the Battle of Plassey, Major Coote reached Munger late at night on 20th July, 1757 and requisitioned a number of boats which the Governor of Munger supplied. But Munger Fort was in such a good condition that he was not allowed to enter the Fort and when he approached the walls he found that garrison was ready to fire. Coote wisely resumed his march without any attempt to enter the Fort. Nearly three years after in the spring of 1760  the army of Emperor Shah Alam marched out of the District when he was being pursued by Major Caillaud and miran. The Emperor had been defeated by Caillaud and Miran at sirpur on the 22nd February, 1760. This time Johan Stables, who had succeeded Caillaud was given charge of Munger. It was he who directed to attack the Kharagpur Raja who had openly defied the authority of the new Nawab, Kasim Ali Khan.

The modern history of Munger came again into Prominence in 1762 when Kasim Ali Khan made it his capital instead of Murshidbad in Bengal. The new Nawab removed his treasure, his elephants and horses and even the gold and silver decorations of the Imam Bara from his old capital. He favored General Gurghin (Gregory) Khan, an Armenian of Ispahan, re-organized the army and had it drilled and equipped after English model. He also established and arsenal for the manufacture of fire-arms and it is from this time that Munger can trace back its importance for the manufacture of guns.  Even today that glorious tradition is being carried on by hundreds of families who specialize in the manufacture of guns.
Two days a week he sat in a public hall of audience and personally dispensed justice. He listened Patiently to the complaints and grievances of everyone and gave his impartial order. The Nawab, indeed, was a terror both to his enemies and to wring doors. He also honored learning and the learned and welcomed scholars and savants to his court and he surely earned the respect and admiration of both friends and foes alike. Unfortunately, however, destiny did not help him and Mir Kasim Ali soon came into confrontation with the English.



 The first quarrel appears to have been caused by the tactless conduct of Mr. Ellis, who was in incharge of an English factory at patna. Mr. Ellis had received a vague report that two English deserters were concealed at Munger. A long dispute followed and it was finally compromised by Mr. Ironsides, the Town Major of Calcutta , who conducted the search of the Fort with the due permission of the Nawab. No deserters were found inside the Fort, the only European in the place being an old French invalid. In April, 1762 Warren Hastings was sent from Calcutta to arrange the terms between the Nawab and Mr.Ellis. The Nawab received him well but Ellis refused to meet Warren Hastings and stayed in his house at Singhia, 15 miles away from Munger. Beside  this personal rancor, serious trade disputes arose between the Nawab and East India Company. The East India Company had been enjoying exemption frm heavy duty transit levied on inland trade. After the battle of Blassey the European servants of the Company began to trade extensivdy on their own account and to claim a similar exemption for all goods passing under company’s flag and covered by Dastak or certificate signed by the Governor or any agent of the factory. Great abuses followed when the English in some cases lent their names to Indians for a consideration and the latter used the same Dastak over and over again or even began forging them.

Warren Hastings in 1762 says Warren Hastings that every boat he met on the river bore the company’s flag and
became aware of the oppression of the people by the Gumashtas and the Company’s servant. Mir Kasim bitterly complained that his source of revenue had been taken away from him and that his authority was completely disregarded. Eventually in Octuber, 1762, Mr. Vansittart, the Governor left Calcutta in order to try and conclude a settlement between  the two parties. He found the Nawab of Munger   smarting under the injuries and insults he had received. But at length it was agreed that servants of the company should be allowed to carry on the inland private trade, on payment of a fixed duty of 9% on all goods- a rate much below that paid by the other merchants. The dastak also remained with a new provision that it should also be countersigned by the nawab’s collector. Mir Kasim agreed to these terms but, of course, very unwillingly. Sair-ul-Mutakharin gives a detailed account of the visit of Vansittart. The Nawab advanced six miles to meet vansittart and arrange for his residence in the house which Gurghin Khan had crected on hill of Sitakund (Pir Pahar).

       Vansittart returned to Calcutta in January 1763 after a week long stay at Munger but he was sorry to find that the agreement concluded with the Nawab has been repudiated. The Nawab, however, had honestly sent the copies of the Governor’s agreement to all of his officrs for its immediate implementation. The result was that English  goods then in transit, were stopped and duty caimed upon them. The English council reacted sharply and wanted that the English dastak should pass free of duty. The Nawab on the other hand protested at this breach of faith and passed orders abolishing all transit duty and thereby, throwing open the whole inland trade free from any custom duty. The English regarded this as an act of hostility and preparations for war began but English decided first to send a deputation headed by Messrs. Amyatt and Hay to arrange fresh tersm with the Nawab.Mr. Ellis was also informed of this development and was warned not to commit any act lof aggression even if the mission failed and Amyatt and Hay were well out of the Nawab’s power.

munger_fort_ka_north_gate

 The members of the mission reached Munger on the 14th may, 1763 and opened up negotiations, but it was soon found that they were undocked. The Nawab who was offended at the rough and over bearing manner in which he was addressed by the English linguist and refused to speak to him. At subsequent interviews also the Nawab tried to avenge the English insult and refused to come to any terms. The Envoys were kept under strict supervision and when some of the party wished to ride out from Munger they found their way barred by the Nawab’s soldiers with lighted matches ready to fire. Just at this tenses moment English cargo boats for Calcutta were detained at Munger and 500 Muskets intended for the factory at Patna were found out hidden under the cargo. The Nawab, naturally, became suspicious of the English move which might have been to seize the fort and the city at Patna. He wanted , therefore, a thorough check-up by his own troops otherwise he would declare war. In the mean time he permitted Mr. Amyatt and others of the party to leave for Calcutta, but detained Mr. Hay and Mr. Gulson as hostages for the safety lof his officers who had been arrested by the English.

As  regardes the final rupture between the English and Bengal Nawab it was precipitated by the action of Mr. Ellis who believed that war was in any  case inevitable, and seized the city of Patna on hearing the news that the detachment was advancing from Munger to reinforce the Nawab’s garrison. The Nawab also retaliated promptly, reinforcements were hurried up and the Fort quickly recaptured. This  news of the success gave Kasim Ali the keenest delight. Even though it was mid-night, he immediately ordered music to strike and awakened the whole town of Munger. At day-break the doors of the public halls were thrown open and every one hastened to offer him congratulations. He , now, proclaimed the outbreak of war and directed his officers to put the English to sword wherever they were found. In pursuance lof this general order Mr. Amayat was killed at Murshidabad and the factory at Cossim (Kasim) Bazar was stormed. The survivorsw surrendered and were sent to Munger to join their unfortunate companions from patna.

The British force under  Major Adams quickly advanced against the nawab and defeated his troops at Suti. On Hearing of his defeat, he sent his Begums and children to the fort at Rohtas and set out himself accompanied by Gurgin khan to join his army that was now concentrated on the banks of the Udhua Nullah near Rajmahal. Before leaving Munger, however, he pur to death a number of his prisoners including Raja Ram Narayan, till lately Deputy Governor of Bihar, who was thrown down into the river below the fort with a pitcher filled with sand bound to his neck. Gurgin Khan not satisfied with this butchery also urged the Nawab to kill his English prisoners but this the Nawab refused to do. Jagat set Mahtab Rai and Sarup Chand, two rich bankers of Murshidabad who had been brought from that place by Mir Kasim Ali as they were believed to favour the British cause also appears to have escaped. Though as the tradition says they were also drowned at the same time. This story is, however, contradicted by the author of Sair-UI-Mutakharin who says that they were hacked to pieces at Barth. The exact location of the tower of castle of Munger from where Jagat Seth and others were thrown down has not yet been located.

              Before the Nawab could join his army at Udhua Nullah he heard of a second decisive defeat that he had sustained and thereafter returned to Munger. He stayed there only for two or three days and marched to Patna with his prisoners like Mr. Hay, Mr. Ellis and some others. On the way Mr. Kasim halted on the bank of Rahua Nullah, a small stream near Lakhisarai. It was here that Gurgin Khan met his death and was cut down by some of his own troopers who were demanding arrears of their pay. A scene of wild confusion followed. Makar, another Armenian General, fired off some guns, the thought that the English were upon them and fled in terror, Mir Kasim himself flying on an elephant. There was great confusion in the army because of this false alarm but Mir Kasim marched on the next day to Patna.

In the meantime the British army moved on rapidly towards Munger and at this time Munger was placed under the command of Arab Ali Khan, who was a creature of Gurgin Khan. On the first of October 1763 the main body of the army arrived on batteries that had been thrown up and were immediately opened. For two days heavy fire was maintained but in the evening the Governor capitulated and surrendered himself and his garrison. The English at once set to work to repair the breaches and improve the defences.   

              The Fort was left under the command of Captain John White who was further directed to raise locally another battalion of sepoys. This news of the capture of Munger infuriated the Nawab who as soon as he heard of it gave order that his English prisoners at Patna should be put to death. This order was carried out by the infamous Samru and is known in history, as the ‘Massacre of Patna’.

There years later in 1766 there was a mutiny of the European officers of Bengal army because of the reduction of “bhatta” which was an extra monthly sum to cover the increased expenses when the soldiers were on active military duty. After the battle of Plassey Mir Jafar Khan had granted an extra-allowance, called “double bhatta” which had continued during the role of Mir Kasim also. But the Directors of the companies now passed order that this allowance should be abolished except for the grant of half-bhatta to the troops stationed at Patna and Munger. This curtailment was bitterly resented by the army officers and on the first of May, 1766 a memorandum to this effect was signed by officers of the first brigade stationed at Munger under Sir Robert Fletcher who transmitted it to Lord Clive at Murshidabad.

              Clive lost no time and proceeded to Munger in person by forced marches and in the mean time sent forward some officers to deal with the situation as well as they could. When arrived at Munger late at night on the 12th May, the army heard too much of drums beating and going further to Robert Fletcher’s quarter they found the European regiment drinking, singing and beating drums. Next morning two of them went to Kharagpur and returned with two battalions to Munger. But we learn that on 14th the European battalion broke out in open mutiny and Captain Smith seized the saluting batteries which were situated upon hillock. The hillock was known as Karn Choura hill. Captain Smith gained possession of the hill and was successful in suppressing the rebellion. In short, Munger was recaptured by the prompt and brave action of Caption Smith and sir Robert Fletcher.

              Clive hadd already reached Munger and he held a parade of troops. He explained the circumstances under which the “bhatta” had been withdrawn and he further applauded the loyal conduct of the sepoys and condemned the conspiracy of some officers. They were further threatened that the ring leaders would get the severest penalties under Martial Law. After his address, the brigade gave their hearty cheers and marched off quietly to the barracks and the lines. Thus, the rebellion of the British officers at Munger was successfully suppressed. For some time John Maccabe was a Deputy Commissioner, Government of Munger before 1789.

              The subsequent history of the district is uneventful with the extension of the British dominions, the town of  Munger  ceased to be an important frontier post. There was no arsenal, no regular garrison was kept up and no attempt was made to bring the fortification up-to-date. Munger, however, was still important for its fine situation and salubrious air and was used as a sanatorium for the British troops. So great a resort that it was the journey up the Ganga followed by a stay was regarded of as healthy as a sea voyage. We find that a trip to Munger was prescribed for the wife of Warren Hastings when she was in ill health and in 1781 when Warren Hastings was on his way to meet Chait Singh at Banaras he left his wife here for the benefit of her health. But during the early part of the 19th century Munger was degraded to a lunatic asylum for sepoys where there was also a depot for army clothing and it became an invalid station for British soldiers.  

Religious / Tourist Places in Munger District

Chandika Astahan in Munger, Kastaharni Ghat in Munger, Pir Shah Nafah Shrine in Munger, Sita Kund in Munger, Manpathar (Sita Charan) in Munger, Ucheswar Nath in Munger, Gurudwara At Piparpanti in Munger, Goenka Sivalaya ( Machchli Talab) in Munger, Baptist Mission in Munger , Sri Krishna Vatika in Munger,  Pirpahar in Munger, Bhimbandh in Munger, Kharagpur Lake in Munger, Malnipahar in Munger, Safiabad- Mirza Munger, Mullah Mohammad Sayyid Grave Munger, Shah Mustafa Sufi’s Grave - Dilawarpur in Munger, Haha Punch Kumari in Munger, Rameshwar Kund in Munger, Rishikund in Munger, Sringirikh in Munger, Lachhuar in Munger, Simultala in Munger.

CHANDIKA ASTAHAN in Munger District

On the sky of religion, Munger is one of the Bright Star. Chandi Asthan one out of the Sixty-four shakti peeths is situated in Munger. On the Northeast corner of Munger, Chandi Asthan is just one kilometer away from the Munger town. Being a Siddhpith Chandi Asthan is considered to be one of the most sacred and sanctified temples, as important as Kamakshya temple near Gauhati. Legendary stories says that it was to save the world from the anger of Lord Shiva, as he took the corpse of Sati and began dancing in the “Tandav Mudra”, as a result of which the earth began to shake and the whole creation was about to destroy, Lord Vishnu managed to cut Sati’s corpse in 64 pieces by his Sudarshan Chakra. CHANDIKA ASTAHAN
 The same legend says that the left eye of the Sati fell at Munger, which subsequently developed in to a place of worship of the Divine Mother Chandi.Among the different shakti piths Chandi Asthan is famous  for the cure of eye troubles.Another legend connected with Chandi Asthan is regarding Raja Karna, who used to worship Chandi Mata every day and in turn the Goddess gave him 11/4 paunds ( 50 Kilograms or sava man) gold for distribution at Karanchaura. The Raja Karna is said to be a different person from the well known hero of the mahabharata and was a contemporary of raja Vikrama. The architecture of the temple gives the view of an inverted couldran on the northan side of the temple close to the Ganga and very close to it on the eastern side in the Samashan or cremation site. During the 10 days of Doorga Puja all roads lead to Chandi Asthan on on the 8th day (Astami day) Yogis, Sannyasis and Tantriks come here from Kamakshaya to perform their Tantric Siddhis. It is still a place where goats are sacrificed on every Tuesday.  

Kastaharni Ghat in Munger District

In the sixth century after Christ, a Hindu sage, named Mudgal Muni, appeared in the city and established two shrines, one at a rock at Kashtaharini Ghat.
In the 26the Adhyaya (chapter) of Adi Kanda of the valmiki’s Ramayana, it is mentioned that both Ramchandra and his brother Lakshmana on their way back from the encounter with Taraka, the demoness, took rest at the spot. The relaxation they had, gave rise to the name of Kashtaharini Ghat stands.
Munger has always been a paradise for pilgrims, saints and devotees. And the one place, which attracts most of them, is a bathing venue at Ganga river, called Kastaharni- Ghat, which literally means: “The Bathing place which expels all pains”. It is believed that - One who takes a dip in this ghat receives solace and cure from bodily pains. Religiously, it has got great importance, as it has northern flow, which is referred as “Uttar Vahani Ganga.”
Being a pilgrimage it is believed that on his return journey from Mithila to Ayodhya after marrying Sita, Sri Ram Chandra and company took a dip in this water to relieve themselves from fatigue. This is also the place people like to visit in Morning and evening to catch the glorious glimpse of Sunrise and Sunset.

Pir Shah Nafah Shrine in Munger District

There is an inscription on the entrance of the Dargah which speaks -
 “Bari Aalee Teri Sarkar Hai Nafah-Shah;
 Mashaa-Allah Sakhi Darbar Hai Nafah-Shah.’
In the present fort area the oldest building inside the fort is a sacred Muhammdan shrine built on an elevated piece of ground near the southern gate. It is said that it was a mazar of a Pir or Saint whose name is still unknown. Pir Shah Nafah Shrine
He is said to have traveled from Persia to Ajmer and from there came down to Munger under the instructions from Khwaza Moin-Uddin Chisti- the famous Sufi Saint and Lived at Munger for many years and also died here in 596 A.H, corresponding to 1177 A.D. He was buried in an obscure place near the ramparts and with the lapse of years exact burial place was forgotten. Ultimately, in 1497 A.D. when the ramparts of the fort being repaired by the Governor, Prince Danyal. It was he who ordered a mosque to be built over that place. So since 1497 the particular place has been known as the Dargah of Shah Nafah, nafah being a Persian word meaning ‘pod of musk.’ Over the gateway there is an inscription set up by Prince Danyal and a round the Shrine are many old tombs in a delapitated state.    There is a popular tradition that Prince danyal got a divine dream about the exact location of the Dargah of Shah Nafah. A hint was given to him that the Dargah existed where the earth gave out the fragrance of Nafah (Kasturi). It is significant to note that the Dargah attracts not only the Muslims but also the Hindus of the town. The offering of Chaddar and holding a musicial programme has become an annual feature on 1st of January every year. The dargah is said to be the protector of the town and a place of wish fulfillments. All those who pass through the road bow their heads in remembrance of the of the Great Saint.

Sita Kund in Munger District

The one Place, which puts Munger on the one of the most visited place, is known as “Sita-Kund”. This place has always been the one, which creates a lot of inquisitiveness among the visitors, as well as it gives a lot of pleasure too. The place is situated 4 miles east of the Munger town. It contains hot springs known as Sita Kund, besides this there is a Hindu temple and to the north is a reservoir of cold water, known as Ramkund, while to the west there were three more polls called after the three brothers of Ram, namely Lakshman Kund, Bharat Kund, and Satrughan Kund. Sita Kund
It has a very interesting ancient story about this place, which belongs in the period of Ramayana. According to which Sita after being rescued form Lanka, Ram to satisfy all public opinion asked Sita to prove her chasti and she gladly agreed to the Agni Pariksha (the fire ordeal). She came out of the fire test uncatched and imparted to the pool in which she bathed, the heat of her body which she had absorbed from the fire. The hot spring is now an enclosed and grilled reservoir and is visited by a large number of pilgrims on the full moon day of Magh. The water is beautifully clear and transparent and sends up numerous bubbles from its rocky bed.  Various explanations of this phenomenon have been suggested, such as “Deep seated thermodynamics action and variation of under ground volcanic activities.” Whatever be the nature of this and scientific exploration, it draws the attraction of foreign travellers and very briefly it is a curious phenomenon. On all accounts, it is a must watch in Munger.  
  
MANPATHAR (SITA CHARAN) Temple in Munger District

Very close to Kastaharni Ghat there is another place of interest called. Manpathar. It is a rock in the bed of river about two miles away from the fort. The Rock contains the impression of two feet, which is supposed to be the feet of Sita when she touched the rock in crossing the Ganga. It is 250 meter long and 30 meter wide. There is a small Mandir at that place.

Ucheswar Nath Temple in Munger District

 In Kharagpur area, there is a very important temple of Lord Shiva which is famous as Ucheswar Nath . It is also important for Santhals and a public fair is held here,where is Santhal boys and a girls marry, according to their tribal custom.

Gurudwara  At  Piparpanti in Munger District

Patna, the state capital of Bihar, is an important place of pilgrimage for the Sikhs also, since it was at Patna City that the famous 10th Guru Govind Singh jee was born. Since then the place remained an important place of Sikh pilgrims from all over the country. It is perhaps not known that the father of Guru Govind Singh, Sri Teg Bahadur jee, the 9th Guru, and, the famous martyr, en route to his journey to Assam to settle a dispute, had chosen to stay, at Munger in a temple on the Piparpanti road just opposite the Dak-Bungalow for a few days on Magh 1724 Vikrami. Raja Ram Singh was selected by Aurangzed during his 10th year of his rule to lead a contingent of army to Assam, had met Guru Teg Bahadur at Munger. He requested the Guru Teg Bahadur to accompany him to Assam and he agreed to go there along with him. It is on record that from here he had written a letter to his wife, who was then at Patna awaiting the delivery of a son, who subsequently, became famous as Guru Govind Singh jee. This temple converted into gurudwara is gaining importance for the local Sikh population.
Besides the Munger Gurudwara, there is another big Gurudwara at Jamalpur, which serves the place of pilgrimage and Sikh congregation on days of important Sikh festivals like annual Baishakhi Day and others. At Jamalpur one of the important roads is also known as Gurudwara road.

Goenka Sivalaya ( Machchli Talab) in Munger DistrictGoenka Sivalaya ( Machchli Talab)

In the chain of beautiful temples Goenka Shivalay is one of the brightest name. Being one of the oldest, it is one of the acknowledged places for Hindu pilgrims. The Shiv temple is built in the midst of a big water tank, which is full of big and beautiful fishes. A rock-solid bridge road of white marble joins it from the main campus. Around the temple a very beautiful garden with flowers and greeneries are kept fully maintained. On festive days specially associated with Lord Shiva, the campus remains full of visitors and gives the impression of a mini mela.


Baptist Mission in Munger District

Munger has also been famous from the point of view of charistianity with a large number of christian population here.According to the district Gazetteer of 1909 the Bapitist Mission is said to have been established at Munger in 1860, and the translation of Hindi New Tastament at present in use in different churches is the work of one of the Munger Missionaries. This hindi translation was published from Calcutta in 1884. There is a reference to one Bapitist Missionary named Andrew Leslie who came to India in 1824. and was posted at Munger and died in 1870. Incidentally, it may be maintained that another Bapitist Missionary called John Parsons, who was associated with the Hindi translation of the New Testament came to India in 1840 was stationed at Munger and died in 1869. The cemetery towards Sita kund has the grave of Revered Johan parson and it is mentioned on grave that he had made the Hindi translation of the new Testament. This received persons was born at Loporton,Sommerset (England).The inscription of the grave, thus, indicates that it was probably persons and not A.Leslie who made the first hindi translation of new Testament which is in the use.

            The cemetery has also the grave of Hershchell Dear born at Dobrz-you (Russian Poland) who spent most of his life ar Munger he died in October 1887 at Mussoorie.his remains where brought and buried at Munger Dear was famous for his charities for the different institutions existing at that time.This cemetery has also the grave of major General charles Murray.Born in Landon in 1827 he had served the Gwalior Campaign (1843-44), Punjab Campaign  (1848-49), Battle of Chaianianwala , Kohat Expendition Insurrection of 1857 and Bhutan wars. Charls  Murray was a resident in Munger from 1871 till his death in Munger in 1893 both Mr. Dear and Murray contributed largely to the development  of Munger and some of the existing residential quarters in the fort area remind us of there name and contributions.

Tourist Places

SRI KRISHNA VATIKA in Munger District


Named after the Proud Son of Munger and the First Chief Minister of the Bihar state Dr. Sri Krishna Sinha, Srikrishna Batika, is a very beautiful enclosed garden just opposite to Kashtaharni Ghat. To have the pleasure of both a green place and the holy river Ganga this is one of the Must Visiting place for the peoples coming to Munger.
Sri Krishna Vatika is also one of the most interesting as well as adventurous venue available in Munger as it has two “Surangs” (tunnels). Some efforts in the past had been made to pass through the tunnels also known as- Mir Kasim’s Surang but these have only proved to be life taking. There are some tombs of Gul and Bahar, wards of Mir Kasim Ali.
It is said that Princess Gul and Prince Bahar used to hide under the tunnels by the riverside in order to weak vengeance upon the British officers. They used to clothe themselves with tiger skins during the nights. Once Bahar, on his rounded in a dark might was caught sight of by a British officer who instantaneously shot the Prince dead. The truth was reveled next morning and the Prince was said to have been buried by the darga of Pir Shah-Nafah-Gul. The Prince was found dead in a man’s attire by the side of her brother’s tomb, where she was also buried. The officer, responsible for Bahar’s and incidentally Gul’s death ordered for a daily salute of guns in the evening to mourn the loss of these children.

PIRPAHAR in Munger District

Three miles east of the town is a hill called Pirpahar, from the top of which a fine view of the surrounding country is obtained. The hill is called after an old Muhammadan Saint or Pir, whose name is no longer remembered, though devotees occasionally come to worship at his grave. There are two old tombs side by side at the foot of the hill, on one of which there is an inscription to the foot of the hill, on one of which there is an inscription to the memory of one Mary Anne Beckett, who died in 1832, while the other has a damaged inscription showing, till a few years ago, that it is in memory of a person named D’Oyly; the portion containing the name has now disappeared. The former is somewhat unconventional in form and character, consisting of a mausoleum surrounded by four walls open to the sky, and has a memorial tablet inserted in the northern wall, with the uncommon and not unaffecting inscription “Be still, she sleeps”. It is not known who Mary Anne Beckett was, but several legends are current about the manner in which she met her death. One is to the effect that she was a young girl who was killed when riding down the hill; another is that she threw herself down the hill owing to some love trouble; while another account says that she was the Kashmirian wife of a Colonel Beckett. Nothing is known about the person to whom the other tomb was erected, but Sir Warren Hastings D’Oyly, formerly Collector of Munger, to whom a reference was made, states that it is possible that he or she was a relative of a D’Oyly, who was formerly an indigo planter in the district. The inscription which is now obliterated shows that he or she died in 183-, i.e., between 1830and 1840.

On the top of the hill there is an old house which may be identified with the residence which, according to the Sair-Ul-Mutakharin, was erected for himself by Ghurghin Khan, the Armemian general of the Nawab Kasim Ali Khan. This is referred to in the Sair-Ul-Mutakharin as the house on the hill of Sitakund, though the sacred springs of Sitakund are two miles away and we learn that when Vansittart, the Governor of the East India Company, visited Munger in 1762, it was assigned to him for his residence. Thirty years later it appears to have been known as Belvedere and a pleasing description of it is given by Mr. Twining in “Travels in India a Hundred years ago”. Former Collectors of Munger resided in this house, which commands one of the finest views one can obtain along the Ganga. Both house and hill are now the property of the sons of the late Babu Upendra Nath Mandal of Chandernagore. Close by, on the summit of another small hill, is a house belonging to Babu Ram Lal Mukerji, a public-spirited Bengali gentleman, who placed a large sum at the disposal of Government for the relief of the distressed in times of famine and flood.

BHIMBANDH in Munger District

A village in the Kharagpur subdivision, within the Kharagpur police-station with an area of 4137 acres. It is situated about 12 miles south-west of Kharagpur and four miles north of Guddih. Close to the village are some hot springs, called Tatal-pani (Tapta-pani) with are by far the finest in the district. The District Gazetteer of Monghyr published in 1926 quoted Captain Sherwill “The first spring is situated about 300 yards to north of village immediately under a small detached Hill named Mahadeva, from whose base the water issued in a fine stream at temperature of 1470 Fahrenheit . A few hundred yards farther to the north, at foot of the hornstone hill Damadama, we came upon a region of hot springs. Hot water appeared to be spouting from the ground in every direction; the principal spring, of which there are eight or ten, had uniform temperature of 1450, all rising within a space of about 300 yards square.
Across numerous hot streams are, of course, many foot-paths used by the cultivators round about Bhimbhand, but nowhere at the point of crossing did one find water above 1200, and even the temperature made the men and woman hurry the stream when fording from bank to bank. To the European skins the hit of 1100 was intolerable, nor could of the party walk coolly across any of the fords at that temperature without being severely scalded not blister. Luxuriant crops of rice raised by the aid of the streams large fields being fed by the water, but at a reduced temperature by leading it in devious courses to the cultivated land. The united waters of all these hot springs are conveyed pool of cold water under an over-hanging rock in that river, called Bhimkund, which is sacred to the Bhima and is visited by pilgrims. These springs, rising at about 300 feet above sea-level are the principal source of the Man itself. The highest temperature recorded by Dr. Buchanan on the 21st March, 1811, was 150`. Sherwill in September of 1847, Waddell in January of 1890, and Schulten in August of 1913, observed temperatures of 147`, 146.2`, and 148` respectively; but Mr. V.H. Jackson considers that there are twelve sources in the Mahadeva group and at least nineteen in the Damadama group; and the hottest of them may not have been observed; readings taken between 1912 and 1919 varied from 145.5` to 146` in the Mahadeva, and from 148` to 148.8` in the Damadama series.
Buchanan noticed that water of the Man, near the springs, was warmer than the atmosphere; and in one place where bubbles were rising in the stream his thermometer registered 98`. Mr. Jackson has traced this to a second series of hot springs along the course of the river, commencing immediately below the Bhimkund and extending for more than a quarter of a mile before the outflow of the first series is reached. Their position varies to some extent from year to year after rains; but when they can be observed above the stream level their temperature is fairly uniform, though not higher than General Cunningham identified the Mahadeva Hill with one mentioned by Hiuen Tsiang in the seventh century A.D. as the site where Buddha overcame the Yaksha Vakula. Hiuen Taisang describes the place as a small solitary double-peaked hill, or, according to another translation, a hill “with successive crags heaped up” situated on the western frontier of Hiranya Parvata, a tract held by recognized authorities to coincide the approximately with the hilly portion of this district.

To the west was six or seven hot springs, the water of which was extremely hot. Colonel Waddell has shown, however, that there are good grounds for doubting this identification and that the natural features of the country do not agree with the description of the Chinese pilgrim. He points out that the hill is not on the western but the southern frontier of Hiranya Parvata; and that the hot springs are not to the west of the hill, but actually upon the hill itself and on its eastern and north-eastern slope. There are no remains of any kind except those of a small brick shrine about four feet square housing a linga; there is no history of there ever having been any remains; and the situation is so remote that had they ever existed, it is scarcely possible that every trace of them would have been swept away.

KHARAGPUR  LAKE in Munger District

Kharagpur is perhaps best known for a large reservoir constructed by Maharaja of Darbhanga. It is formed by a damp built, two miles west of Kharagpur across the Man river, which at this point debauches through a narrow gorge in the hills. To the south-west the gorge widens out into a valley hemmed in on all sides by low but abrupt hills, and here a large reservoir has been formed by the accumulation of the river water and of the drainage from the hills and valleys.

About a mile or two above the dam is picturesque waterfall called “PANCHKUMARI” or the five princess. In the neighborhood is a hill also called PUNCHKUMARI. The legend about this hill speaks of five daughters of the Raja of Kharagpur, who took refuge there when there father was taken prisoner to Delhi.

About 2½ miles south-west of the Panchkumari fall, not far from Karmantari village, is a group of hot springs known as Lakshmikund, which emerge from crevices in rocks on the west side of a narrow torrend bed, some distance above and not far north of the lake, into which they discharge. These springs are most conveniently reached from Kharagpur, eight miles to the north east, by taking a boat across the lake. In 1917 Mr. V.H. Jackson found that the temperature of the eleven Principal out flows was over 146, while the temperature at the largest watch 151.30 which is higher than the maximum temperature recorded in the Bhimbhand or Janamkund groups, which these springs closely resemble. As at both of the later groups of springs, there is another series of springs lower down, which are distinctly cooler.

MALNIPAHAR in Munger District

A hill in the Kharagpur subdivision, situated in the Kharagpur Hills about seven miles north-east of Bhimbandh. There are several springs, known as Janamkund, at the bottom of the hill, which form the source of the Anjan River. One spring, which issues at all seasons of the year directly from a crevice in the rock, is apparently that of which the temperature was tested by Buchanan in 1811. Mr.V.H.Jackson, making tests at different seasons, has found that its temperature varies from 147.2` to 149`. A second series of springs, the existence of which was suspected by Buchanan, was discovered in 1912. These occur along the bed of the Anjan for about 150yards, at a quarter of a mile from the source. Their highest temperature yet observed is 140.

MARUK in Munger District

A hill in the Kharagpur subdivision, situated in Kharagpur Hills 13 miles south of Munger. An interesting  account of the hill is quoted in an article on the Kharagpur Hills by Captain Sherwill. The origin of the name Maruk is not known, but it is probably so called after the maharuk tree (Ailanthus Excelsa). An ideal picnic spot but hardly used.

SAFIABAD- MIRZA Well in Munger District

Mirza Safiy retitled Saif Khan, was the husband of Malka Banu, eldest sister of Mumtaz Mahal, the lady of the Taj. When Saif Khan became the Governor of Bihar in 1628 A.D. he undertook construction of public utilities. Peter Mundy speaks very highly of them. The inception of safiabad township near Jamalpur and Safiasarai and a big well in Munger are commonly attributed to saif Khan.

MULLAH MOHAMMAD SAYYID GRAVE, Munger District

The historians of Aurnagzeb’s region mention one Mullah Muhammad Sayyid, who wrote under the nom-de-plume of ‘ Ashraf ’. He was a poet of repute and enjoyed the favours of Prince Azim-us-shan, Aurangzeb’s grandson. He was also the teacher of Zebunnissa Begam, the daughter of Aurangzeb and a renowned poetess. The poet died at Munger in 1672 on his way to Mecca and was buried there. His grave is within the fort.

SHAH MUSTAFA SUFI’S GRAVE, DILAWARPUR, Munger District

The quarter known as Dilawarpur conatins the residence of a leading Muhammadan family known as the shah family. It trace back its descent to Hazrat Maulana Shah Mustapha Suh, a man of great learning. Who was a native of Seistan in Persia. The fame of his learning reached the ears of Akbar, who invited his to his court in Delhi, where Akbar marcired south to crush the rebellion of the Afghans in Bihar and Bengal, he was accompanied by Shah Mustapha Sufi, who distinguished himself in the field and made it clear that he possessed supernatural powers. Hearing of the holy life led by a saint of Munger, called Hazrat Shah Allaabad Arafin, and of the miracles he wrought, he gave up the idea of worldy career and came to Munger to meet the saint. As soon as Shah Mushtapha Sufi looked upon the saint, he become insensible, and when he revived, found himself in possession of divine secrets. He became the disciple of the Hazrat, who made him Sajjada-nashin, and on his death in 1050 A.H. (1650 A.D.) he was buried in Dilawarpur. Where his tomb may still be seen. His descendants still reside at Dilawarpur.

HAHA PUNCH KUMARI Fall in Munger District

It is on the western side of Rameshwar Kund. It is a waterfall coming from the hills with straight drop. The natural scenery is beautiful. This fall is named after the five girls of Hindu Raja of Kharagpur whose daughters committed suicide by jumping from the hill top to escape capture by the Muslim invaders.


RAMESHWAR KUND in Munger District

It is situated in Kharagpur police-station and on the north-west corner of the Kharagpur lake. The legend goes that during the Muslim invasion one of the Generals camped at this site and dug the earth for water and accidentally a hot water sprig came out.

RISHI KUND in Munger District

A hot spring in the Munger subdivision situated about six miles south of Sitakund at the head of a picturesque little valley between two ridges of the Kharagpur Hills. It has been made a place of worship and a reservoir, about 140 feet square, has been built to collect the water. The bottom is in some places sandy, in others rocky; and the water seems to issue all along the western side from numerous crevice in the rock. Bubble rise from the whole extent of the pool near the hill, and where the gas issues from among sand is forms cavities like minute craters. According to observations taken by Buchanan on the morning of the 8th April, 1811 the thermometer in the air stood at 720 in the water were it issued from the crevice of a rock, it rose to 110o, and one of the cavities to 114o.

MELAS in Munger District

At Rishikund at Kharagpur police-station every year in the Malmas, a big mela is held which has a religious sanctity.

At Deogarh in Kharagpur police-station there is a hill. On the top of the hill is Sheio Mandir. A big mela is held in Fagun on Shivaratri day and it continues for three days.

At Rangnath in Kharagpur police-station also a big mela is held at Shivaratri day for two days.
At Rangnath in Tarapur police-station a big mela is held on Shivaratri day and it continues for five days. This village is situated on the road to Bhagalpur.

In Munger town Dashara Mela is held on a gigantic scale and about a lakh of people congregate here on the occasion from different parts of the district

At Kastaharinighat in Munger town on Maghi Purnima day a big mela is held.
At Sitakund in Mufassil police-station every year a big mela is held on the occasion of Maghi Purnima. It is started that it is held since the days of Ram.